TransCanada uses the measures "comparable earnings", "comparable earnings per share", "funds generated from operations" and "operating income" in this MD&A. These measures do not have any standardized meaning prescribed by Canadian GAAP. They are, therefore, considered to be non-GAAP measures and are unlikely to be comparable to similar measures presented by other entities. Management of TransCanada uses these non-GAAP measures to improve its ability to compare financial results among reporting periods and to enhance its understanding of operating performance, liquidity and ability to generate funds to finance operations. These non-GAAP measures are also provided to readers as additional information on TransCanada's operating performance, liquidity and ability to generate funds to finance operations.
Management uses comparable earnings/(expenses) to better evaluate trends in the Company's underlying operations. Comparable earnings comprise net income from continuing operations adjusted for specific items that are significant, but are not reflective of the Company's underlying operations in the year. Specific items are subjective, however, management uses its judgement and informed decision-making when identifying items to be excluded in calculating comparable earnings, some of which may recur. Specific items may include but are not limited to certain income tax refunds and adjustments, gains or losses on sales of assets, legal and bankruptcy settlements, and certain fair value adjustments. The Segment Results table in this MD&A presents a reconciliation of comparable earnings to net income from continuing operations. Comparable earnings per share is calculated by dividing comparable earnings by the weighted average number of shares outstanding for the period.
Funds generated from operations comprises net cash provided by operations before changes in operating working capital. A reconciliation of funds generated from operations to net cash provided by operations is presented in the Summarized Cash Flow table in the "Liquidity and Capital Resources" section of this MD&A.
Operating income is reported in the Company's Energy business segment and comprises revenues less operating expenses as shown on the Consolidated Income Statement. A reconciliation of operating income to net income is presented in the "Energy" section of this MD&A.